Biosecurity is of paramount importance in aquaculture operation. Pathogen free water source is essential for success in aquaculture. Sanitization of water for aquaculture is critical for preventing the introduction and spread of infectious diseases. Where the indiscriminate use of antibiotics for controlling bacterial diseases can only lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, sanitizers are the successful alternative to antibiotics. AQUAMAC BENIZO 80, a quaternary ammonium compound is a cationic biocide used as “topical sanitizer” to remove ectoparasites from fish & shrimp. It has detergent & antibacterial activities and is effective to prevent & control bacterial, protozoan and monogenean infections.
Ammonia ‘sinks’ occur within pond aquaculture in the form of the plants and algae. Large quantities of organic matter are produced by algae or added to pond as feed. The decomposition of this organic matter like unutilized feed, dead plants & fish, excretion of fish, remains of FYM etc produces ammonia which diffuses from the sediment into the water column. It also releases other gases like Sulphur dioxide and Hydrogen sulphide. High ammonia is also caused by inadequate or immature biological filtration, over stocking of fish, over feeding of fish & high temperature. Zeolite is a naturally occurring deposit (i.e. rock) that has unique structure. Zeolite earth in crude form gives many types of crystals. Only micro crystalline alkali earth metal, aluminum Silicates are known as zeolite. This is because the absorption of gases takes place through the surface area, which is highly porous whilst also allowing for rapid uptake and loosing of charged particles. Zeolite filters ammonia and holds it inside its porous structure. Therefore, only micro crystalline form of zeolite having tetrahedral structure with maximum calcium form are useful in aquaculture. This is because calcium ion is easily exchangeable with ammonium ion.
Aquaculture has developed extensively in high stocking density with increased production level. In the pond natural food resources are unable to provide the required nutrition to shrimp & fish under commercialization culture practice. Research shows that optimal trace mineral nutrition plays an important role to improve aquaculture production. Fish, Shrimp and other aquatic species require trace minerals for basic metabolic functions, growth & development, immunity & reproduction.
Dissolved Oxygen management is the most important aspect of aquaculture pond water quality management. Adequate concentration of oxygen in water are vital for intensive fish farming, growth and production. Oxygen dissolves into water from two sources: the atmosphere and phytoplankton. In the presence of sunlight these produce oxygen through photosynthesis & release this oxygen into the pond water. In general most fish species will grow and thrive within a DO range of 5-12 mg/L (PPM).
Diatoms are nature’s live nutrients consisting of Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates, DHA, Vitamins, Minerals, Fatty Acids & Amino Acids. Diatoms are the primary food source for the aquatic animal food chain. Depending on the species and culture conditions, benthic diatom contains an average of 32 to 38 % crude protein.
Competitive exclusion of probiotic organism colonizes the gut thereby inhibiting colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Probiotic organisms produce certain inhibitory substances which hinder pathogenic organism. Probiotic organism utilizes the nutrients causing unavailability of nutrients to the pathogens. Substances produced by probiotics act as antagonist for ‘quorum sensing mechanism’. Probiotic improves immunity by increased macrophage activity and antibody level (Mohammad Jalil Zorriehzahra et al., 2016)
The use of probiotics as a means of reducing disease in Aquaculture is widely accepted on the principal of competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, digestion enhancement by participating in digestion process, providing necessary growth factors, immune response enhancement through modulating non-specific immune responses, water quality improvement by enhancing the domination of heterotrophic bacteria and antiviral effects through the production of antagonistic compounds (Balcazar et.al., 2006, Vine et. al., 2006). There are increasing reports of research works on the application of probiotics in Aquaculture (Hai et.al., 2009, Zhou et.al., 2009). Considering the demand for more disease-free, environment-friendly and sustainable Aquaculture practice usage of multi-strain probiotic has been widely accepted and established as a successful alternative against the abuse of antimicrobials drugs, pesticides and disinfectants.
Mycotoxins are invisible, odorless and tasteless toxins with a major impact on the growth & health of fish & shrimp. This can result in significant economic losses such as slow growth, reduced weight, increase in FCR & medicine cost. Mycotoxins also appear to be very heat stable and do not seem to be reduced even after the pelleting and extrusion process of aqua feed.
White faeces Disease (WFD) becomes apparent when the digestive system of the shrimp malfunctions and the faeces turns from the normal brownish colour to pale white. The hepatopancrease becomes whitish and soft. The white faeces appear to be more buoyant than normal faeces and float on the water surface. Infected shrimp show a loose exoskeleton and are also infested by epibiotic protozoa that cause a dark discoloration of the gills.
The dead plankton, faecal material and other decaying matters in the pond produce ammonia, nitrite and nitrate which are toxic in nature. Also the growth of algae and harmful microorganism increases the pollution level and depletes Dissolved Oxygen level.
Zecid liquid is a powerful combination of acids to help reduce contamination and multiplication of pathogens along the drinking water system, and also on the digestive tract. Acids help to improve digestion, thus the breakdown of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, increasing absorption. This enhances growth and weight gain; lower FCR and increase production parameters.
Zecid is a powerful acid premix to help decrease the risks of pathogen contamination and multiplication in feed, once ingested. Zecid quickly helps to decrease the ph in the stomach extending the time of exposure of pathogens to an unfavourable acidic environment. This helps to eliminate a higher amount of bacteria, decreasing the transient passage to the intestines. Also the breakdown of fats, proteins and carbohydrates is better, increasing their utilization. This helps to enhance growth, increase weight gain, lower FCR and thus improve the production parameters.
Toxigard contains a physically activated diatomaceous earth with high redox capacity. The highly porous layered material with high surface area (12-15 m2/g) has affinity to bind water and excess humidity. Toxins dissolve in humidity while mixing and pelleting. During this process the diatomaceous earth absorbs and traps excess humidity and the toxins dissolve in it and inactivates them irreversibly. The destructive action is due to its high redox capacity, which breaks the double bonds and the aromatic rings of mycotoxins. Because of its capacity to bind and move humidity, Toxigard also acts as an anti-caking agent.