The most effective & sustainable solution is to use a consortium of foregut and hind gut acting probiotic bacteria. When looking for a probiotic for your birds, look for one with Bacillus subtilis, a very hardy strain of beneficial bacteria which populates rapidly. Also, you must consider Clostridium butyricum for its direct antagonistic effect against several intestinal (hind gut) pathogens and immune modulation property.
FCR or Feed Conversion Ratio is the amount of feed ingested by an animal which can be converted into one kilo of live weight. FCR is calculated as follows:
As feed cost represents around 70% of the total cost of any poultry production, the efficient conversion of feed into live weight is essential for profitability, and small changes in FCR at any given feed price can have a substantial impact on financial margins
Young broilers have a physiological limitation to absorb fat (Jeason & Kellog, 1992; Nir et al., 1993; Lima et al., 2003). Rate of bile secretion is the main reason why fat digestion does not occur properly at an early age. The problem is confounded by the following facts: -
- Bile salt gets de-conjugated by bile salt hydrolase, bacteria like Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium and by lipase.
- Insufficient recirculation and re-absorption of bile salts.
Dietary supplementation of emulsifier improves fat utilization at the early age when both bile salt and lipase secretion in vivo remain at a much lower level.
Yes. Vitamin D3 plays a major role in Ca and P metabolism in the intestine and bones of birds in order to maintain Ca homeostasis resulting in-
- In rapidly growing broilers-reduced leg problems with improved bone breaking strength and various skeletal indices, reduced TD incidence in healthy birds as well as influences the performance under various parameters like reduced mortality, increased weight gain, FCR and animal welfare.
- In broiler breeder- improved egg shell quality and laying performance with reduced embryo mortality.
- In layers- improved egg shell breaking strength & various inner egg indices and reduced cracking percentages.
- Unlike conventional emulsifiers, it has a higher HLB value (16-18) and consumes little energy in becoming dissolved by mechanical stirring in the gut.
- At the same time, it reduces the surface free energy required to maintain the surface tension in the O-W emulsion formed in the gut.
- It increases fat digestibility especially for the LCFA (> C 14) and hence is especially good in formulations where SFA (like palm oil or tallow) are present in greater quantities.
- It improves speed of transportation of long chain fatty acids into mitochondria and promotes oxidative metabolism of feed lipids.
- Being a nutritional emulsifier, it may increase protein digestibility especially when added fat is present – added fat retards gastric emptying and hence increases protein digestibility. So, there will be double benefits of better ME value from the fat and increases digestibility of amino acids as well.
Amino acids are building blocks of proteins that play many important roles in the body. Based on the body’s capability to synthesize, amino acids can be categorized into 2 types –
Essential amino acids: These are amino acids that the animal cannot make by itself and must be provided through dietary intake to ensure normal function of the animal. They include phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, arginine (sometimes considered to be non-essential), leucine and lysine.
Non-essential amino acids: These are amino acids that can be synthesized within the animal’s body, usually from other amino acids or other compounds. They include alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, hydroxyproline, proline, serine and tyrosine. Though these amino acids do not need to be provided in the diet, they still play important roles in the body. Non-essential amino acids (AA), particularly glycine and serine, recently have received increasing attention in the context of crude protein (CP) reduction in the poultry feed.
- Binding efficacy- quality & characteristics of the clay to ensure strong & effective binding. Only a careful selection of the clay, minimum impurities, desirable pore size and ionic characters will yield good binding efficacy.
- Binding stability - the binder binds mycotoxins in the gizzard, but will not release them even at neutral or alkaline pH, ensuring that the complex passes through the intestine and ensure safety to birds.
- Least active on nutrients - no adsorption of vital nutrients.
- Detoxification of masked mycotoxins – breaking of the molecular structure (oxidizing the double bond).
Brooding is the nursing and special care of newly hatched chicks by provision of optimum environment. The chick is not able to maintain a constant body temperature until sometime between 1 & 2 weeks of age. Brooding is the most critical period (first 2 weeks) in the life of chick, and has an impact on its future growth & performance. A good brooding can ensure 50% of flock success. Objectives of brooding are:
- To attain good uniformity of flock
- Maximum 1st week body weight
- High liveability
- Early development of Intestine – better nutrient utilization
- Early development of immune system- healthy chick, less disease
- Successful & more profitable farming
Diarrhoea/ loose drop can often be a complex issue as it can be caused by a variety of means including both nonpathogenic and pathogenic agents.
- ✓ Managemental/ environmental causes- excessive water intake (during summer/ monsoon), poor ventilation, high ambient temperature & RH
- ✓ Feed & nutrition- high intake of the minerals- potassium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate or chloride through the feed or water; poor quality or rancid fat; excess protein; feed ingredients high in Non-Starch Polysaccharides (NSP) such as wheat, barley, rye; moldy feeds or mycotoxins like aflatoxins, ochratoxins, DON, T2 toxins; incorrect feed structure; rapid feed change
- ✓ Bacteria (dysbacteriosis- C. perfringens, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Spirochaetes)
- ✓ Viruses- Adenovirus, Astrovirus, Coronavirus, Paramyxoviruses, Parvovirus, Reovirus, Rotavirus
- ✓ Parasites- Eimeria (coccidiosis), Ascardia, Histomonas